[7] His nephew Pietro Riario also benefited from his nepotism. The election. His pursuit of political goals and unremitting efforts to aggrandize his family were seen as excessive. [2], As a young man, Della Rovere joined the Franciscan Order, an unlikely choice for a political career, and his intellectual qualities were revealed while he was studying philosophy and theology at the University of Pavia. As a civic patron in Rome, even the anti-papal chronicler Stefano Infessura agreed that Sixtus should be admired. It was that access to corpses which allowed the anatomist Vesalius, along with Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, to complete the revolutionary medical/anatomical text De humani corporis fabrica. In the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì, he is accompanied by his Della Rovere and Riario nephews, not all of whom were made cardinals; the protonotary apostolic Pietro Riario (on his right), the future Pope Julius II/ Giuliano Della Rovere standing before him; and Girolamo Riario and Giovanni della Rovere, behind the kneeling Platina, author of the first humanist history of the popes. Internet Archive, Ebooks and Texts. His first thought was the prosecution of the war against the Turks , and legates were appointed for France , Spain , Germany , Hungary , and Poland , with the hope of enkindling enthusiasm in … According to the later published chronicle of the Italian historian Stefano Infessura, Diary of the City of Rome, Sixtus was a "lover of boys and sodomites", awarding benefices and bishoprics in return for sexual favours and nominating a number of young men as cardinals, some of whom were celebrated for their good looks. Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was allied with the Sforzas of Milan, the Medicis of Florence along with the King of Naples, normally a hereditary ally and champion of the papacy. In 1476, he issued the apostolic constitution Cum Praeexcelsa, establishing a Mass and Office for the feast. However, Pietro died prematurely in 1474, and his role passed to Giuliano Della Rovere. [17], As a temporal prince who constructed stout fortresses in the Papal States, he encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for another nephew. Alexander VI, corrupt, wordly, and ambitious pope (1492–1503), whose neglect of the spiritual inheritance of the church contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation. Sixtus V, pope from 1585 to 1590, who reformed the Curia. [2] However, the two factions of cardinals differed over whether the church ought to prioritize the continuation of the Italian League or should prioritize papal power (especially vis-a-vis Naples) over the preservation of the peace. "When Sixtus IV Needed a Painter", "Daniel Sharman and Bradley James Join Netflix's 'Medici' (EXCLUSIVE)", International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, The Creation of the Sun, Moon, and Plants, Restoration of the Sistine Chapel frescoes, Brothers and Sisters of Penance of Saint Francis, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pope_Sixtus_IV&oldid=991308161, Ministers General of the Order of Friars Minor, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Articles lacking reliable references from August 2012, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [14] Although such accusations are easily dismissed as anti-Catholic propaganda,[10] they still prompted the noted historian of the Catholic Church, Ludwig von Pastor, to issue a firm rebuttal.[15]. Pope Sixtus IV (Latin: Xystus Quartus; 21 July 1414 - 12 August 1484), originally Francesco della Rovere, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 213th Pope from 1471 until his death in 1484.. [25], "Francesco della Rovere" redirects here. This included the right to establish the four traditional faculties of theology, law (Canon Law and Roman law), medicine, and philosophy, and to award the bachelor's, master's, licentiate, and doctoral degrees. As Pope, he issued a papal bull allowing local bishops to give the bodies of executed criminals and unidentified corpses to physicians and artists for dissection. Successor: Innocent VIII. Before his papal election, Cardinal della Rovere was renowned for his unworldliness and had written learned treatises, including On the Blood of Christ and On the Power of God. The Pope grew weaker during the night of 11 August and he was unable to sleep. Before he became pope, he had spent time at the very liberal and cosmopolitan University of Padua, which maintained considerable independence from the Church and had a very international character. For the archbishop, see, Bishops consecrated by Pope Sixtus IV as principal consecrator, On his premature death (1501), Giovanni entrusted his son, Raiswell, p. 469 see also "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe", p. 281, Sued-Badillo (2007), see also O'Callaghan, p. 287-310, Sten Lindroth. Pope Sixtus IV (Latin: Xystus Quartus; 21 July 1414 - 12 August 1484), originally Francesco della Rovere, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 213th Pope from 1471 until his death in 1484. A History of Uppsala University: 1477-1977. He went on to lecture at Padua and many other Italian universities. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, This page was last edited on 1 October 2020, at 19:27. He decreed that the people should chant with the priest during the Sanctus at the Holy Communion section of the Catholic Mass.. Sixtus IV died on 12 August 1484 and was succeeded by Innocent VIII. Linus is named in the valediction of the Second Epistle to Timothy as being with Paul the Apostle in Rome near the end of Paul's life. A patron of the arts, he brought together the group of artists who ushered the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. Sixtus V created 33 cardinals in eight consistories during his reign, which included his grandnephew Alessandro Peretti di Montalto and his future successor Ippolito Aldobrandini who would later become Pope Clement VIII. In 1475 his successor Pope Sixtus IV founded the Palatine Library. [4] His reputation for piety was one of the deciding factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him Pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four.[5]. Named bishop of Savona, Italy, in 1467 by Pope Paul II, he was made cardinal in 1473 by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded. A marble tombstone marks the site. Posthumous style. Becoming a Franciscan, he subsequently taught and was chosen minister general of his order in 1464. Pope Sixtus I(42 – 124, 125, 126 or 128), a Roman of Greek descent,[1]was the Bishop of Romefrom c. 115 to his death c. 25 Jul. He succeeded Pope Alexander I and was in turn succeeded by Pope Telesphorus.His feast is celebrated on 6 April. He is considered a Saint by the Catholic Church. The secular fortunes of the Della Rovere family began when Sixtus invested his nephew Giovanni with the lordship of Senigallia and arranged his marriage to the daughter of Federico III da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino; from that union came a line of Della Rovere dukes of Urbino that lasted until the line expired, in 1631. He was born in a poor family, and when he was a child, he was destined for the Franciscan order. Sixtus II is referred to by name in the Roman Canon of the Mass. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. Sixtus IV, pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. Pope Sixtus IV (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. He served twice (1557–60) as inquisitor general in Venice, his severity there causing his recall. As pope he is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter. The dedicatory inscription in the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace records: "You gave your city temples, streets, squares, fortifications, bridges and restored the Acqua Vergine as far as the Trevi..." In addition to restoring the aqueduct that provided Rome an alternative to the river water, which had made the city famously unhealthy, he restored or rebuilt over 30 of Rome's dilapidated churches such as San Vitale (1475) and Santa Maria del Popolo, and he added seven new ones. In ecclesiastical affairs, Sixtus promoted the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, which had been confirmed at the Council of Basle in 1439,[6] and he designated 8 December as its feastday. Marcellino e Pietro, archbishop of Lisbon, Title of S. Crisogono, bishop of Recanati, 25 March 1471 (in pectore), 10 December1477, Title of S. Clemente, archbishop of Turin, Title of Ss. Sixtus IV (sĭk`stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II.He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. Pope Sixtus IV paid a formal visit to the newly restored building on 1 May 1482, and it may be that Giuliano was already in residence then. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Sixtus was expected to be a reformer, but he was too much embroiled in political difficulties. Sixtus IV: Successor: Alexander VI: Orders; Ordination: c. 1450: Consecration: 28 January 1467: Created cardinal: 7 May 1473 by Sixtus IV: Personal details; Birth name: Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) Born: 1432 Genoa, Republic of Genoa: Died: 25 July 1492 (aged 59–60) Rome, Papal States: Previous post E Martino ai Monti, this page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 19:27 on! Was sacked and his role passed to Giuliano Della Rovere adopted the name,... 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