Case hardening is a heat-treatment process that is used to prevent rotating components from becoming brittle and failing. Many old guns have faded color case hardening. What is Case Hardening Case hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal by infusing elements onto the metal surface, forming a thin layer of a harder alloy. Case hardening is a simple method of hardening steel. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. After the case hardening process is complete, the excess metal is removed using an angle grinder or abrasive discs thereby removing the case hardened surface, and leaving the soft mild steel. The origins of Case Hardening. The process of Hardening the surface of the machined components to resists wear and tear by keeping the core material remains soft to withstand the shock loads known as the Case hardening or the Surface Hardening process. Parts to be nitrided are cleaned, degreased and are then charged in the vessel, which is then evacuated to 0.05-0.10 torr. The course takes one hour to complete. Color Case hardening is getting very popular. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. A seminar on case hardening methods ppt video online download. Explore the different techniques and discover how Specialty Steel Treating can help. The process of case-hardening, however, increases the carbon content at the surface of This is called quenching the steel and it helps to make the surface more accessible to the element it will be infused with once cooled. Typical case depths are between 0.075 to 8.25 mm [10] . Gas nitriding surface hardening process at metlab of wyndmoor pa. Strong, light and dimensionally stable – advantages of press hardening. In many engineering applications, it is required that a steel being used should have a hard surface so that it can resist wear and tear. Rotate Your Trays. All Time. Laser hardening consists of the rapid heating of a material’s surface by laser beam, a short hold at the target temperature, and intensive cooling due to the high thermal conductivity of the material. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Case Hardening: Case hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal by infusing elements onto the metal surface, forming a thin layer of a harder alloy. 13.5 Hardening mechanisms in Al–Cu alloys. Core – soft, tough, shock resistant. Case hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal by infusing elements into the material’s surface, forming a thin layer of harder alloy. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Led Flood Light Case and housing come at very affordable prices for you. It is less complex than hardening and tempering. The process by which the surface of an object or part can be made hard and leaving the interior as it is, is called as surface or case hardening process. This process is adopted, as many of the applications like gears, cams, and crankshafts desire high hardness on the outer surface and softer core, which is … Temp is raised to specific case-hardening temp. the process of hardening the surface of steel while leaving the interior unchanged. Since cyaniding temp is low, parts distortion is less during quenching. If you have a machine that has a top-down or bottom-up fan, rotate your trays at least once through the process. You can change your ad preferences anytime. The latter diffuses into the steel forming nitrides of iron, aluminum, chromium and vanadium. Zhejiang Dingxin Steel Tube Manufacturing co. Zhejiang Dingxin Steel Tube Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Paper Tube Machine - Paper Tube Manufacturing Machines, S. K. Steel Corporation, Mumbai, Nitriding Steel Bars, 10 cylinder liners and piston ring manufacturing, No public clipboards found for this slide. Participants will learn about the process parameters and how they affect case composition, depth, microstructure, and properties. CASE See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. This Case Hardening process will be applied to the final shaped machine components. Combined with a subsequent hardening operation the desired … How to select the right surface hardening method -Carburizing is the best method for low carbon steel -Nitriding is a lower distortion process than carburizing but it can be used for certain type of steel such as chromium-molybdenum alloy steel -Flame hardening is preferred for heavy cases or selective hardening of large machine components. Surface hardening is a heat treating service for reinforcing a metal surface. Case hardening is usually done after the part has been formed into its final shape. Case hardening (or) Surface hardening is a process of heating the metal over its surface so as to harden it. Most carbonitrided gears are tempered at 190 to 205°C and still maintain case hardness of HRC 58. One advantage of this method of hardening steel is that the inner core is left untouched and so still processes properties such as flexibility and is … Since cyaniding temp is low, parts distortion is less during quenching. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Drying large pieces can create a case-hardening effect. HARDENING. Hs code 38249012 | harmonized system code case hardening. Both carbon and alloy steels are suitable for case hardening providing their carbon content is low, usually up to a maximum of 0.2%. 1. case hardening can provide a part that will not fracture (because of the soft core that can absorb stresses without cracking) but also provides … process involves a complex combination of elec-tromagnetic and heat transfer phenomena, as described in more detail in the article “Principles of Induction Heating” in this Volume. Because case hardening offers superior surface qualities with less risk of distortion, it’s become a mainstay treatment of parts across a variety of industries: Manufacturers of automotive parts choose to nitride gears, crankshafts, and valve parts because the process imparts hard diffusion layers to … Case Hardening - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. This process is adopted, as many of the applications like gears, cams, and crankshafts desire high hardness on the outer surface and softer core, which is … Through the age hardening process the tensile and yield strength are increased. The thinner the better, and the smaller chunks, the better. technique in which the metal surface is reinforced by the adding of a fine layer at the top of another metal alloy that is generally more durable A steel heat treatment service such as case hardening can help you authentically restore a firearm, uniquely color action parts or improve and upgrade gun components.. introduction Case hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “Best PowerPoint Templates” from Presentations Magazine. Cyaniding is a case-hardening process in which both carbon and nitrogen we added to the surface layers of sic el by dipping in a liquid cyanide bath at around 800° to 900°C, specially the small parts having carbon between 0.2 to 0.4%. Components that are candidates for this process are any that are subject to a lot of pressure or heavy impact. Case hardening is a process which involves adding a hard, protective shell to the outside of an otherwise soft steel. It … Effective drying results from uniform slicing and cutting (as uniform as you can get it). Clean and pre-heated baths (200-500 C) are immersed in cyanide bath and kept for 10-90 mins as case depth is required. During heat treatment the chemical composition at the surface of the component alters in order to increase hardness (Surface Treatments, 2014). SURFACE Hardening is accomplished when the high-carbon surface layer is quenched to form martensitic case with good wear and fatigue resistance superim-posed on a tough, low-carbon steel core. hardening process. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Chem. It consists of heating Steel components to the temperature within or above its critical range. Ferric nitrocarburizing is one of the case hardening process in which the carbon and nitrogen are spread out on the ferrous metals. Case Hardening PowerPoint PPT Presentations. Rotate Your Trays. Case Hardening. Addition of … This techniques is used for steels with a low carbon content. The dynamic process of case hardening guns offers several benefits and can be used to create truly unique firearms. Components subject to this… This process allows for intricately shaped metals to possess a strength and toughness that they otherwise wouldn't be able to possess. Case Hardening is a process of hardening ferrous alloys using heat treatment so that the surface layer or case is made substantially harder than the interior or core. cyanide — /suy euh nuyd , nid/, n., v., cyanided, cyaniding. Induction heating is used in a variety of heat treatmentprocesses,suchasannealing,normaliz-ing, surface (case) hardening, through hardening, If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Around 1400 BC, hardening methods began to appear in armouries around the world. Malleable metals and alloys of nickel, magnesium and titanium are suitable for age hardening process. History Behind Ferric Nitrocarburizing: Ferric nitrocarburizing was first implemented by the Great Britain’s Imperial Chemical Industries(ICI). Also, cyanid /suy euh nid/. Carburizing, also referred to as Case Hardening, is a heat treatment process that produces a surface which is resistant to wear, while maintaining toughness and strength of the core. There are many different types of surface hardening processes but typically, you take a base metal with a low carbon content and then combine it with a thin layer of another metal alloy that has a higher carbon content … You can change your ad preferences anytime. Case hardening may be defined as a process for hardening a ferrous material in such a manner that the surface layer, known as the case, is substantially harder than the remaining material, known as the core. The hardening process makes the fine thread metal brittle, and therefore an increased tendency for them to break. CASE-HARDENING GEOMETER explains the process and its applications BECAUSE of its low carbon content, ranging between about 0.1 and 0.2 per cent., a mild-steel, unlike a carbon steel, will not harden merely by heating to bright red and quenching in water. Hardening is a heat treatment process carried out to increase the hardness of Steel. For iron or steel with low carbon content, which has poor to no hardenability of its own, the case-hardening process involves infusing additional carbon or nitrogen into the surface layer. Laser hardening is a surface-hardening process commonly used for complicated shapes or large objects because it allows for absolute control on the surface hardness and texture. Engineering Applications and Design Engineering Materials. First, the original ferritic-perlitic material structure is austenitized by heating, and then transformed into hard martensite by quenching. process involves a complex combination of elec-tromagnetic and heat transfer phenomena, as described in more detail in the article “Principles of Induction Heating” in this Volume. During the process, the steel’s molecular structure is transformed into ultra high strength steel (UHSS). basics. Case Hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal, often a low carbon steel, by infusing elements into the material's surface, forming a thin layer of a harder alloy. Process: Neutral baths are melted, then req amt of NACN added. Alloy steels are normally case hardened to increase the metal characteristics. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The case hardening process This process involves heating the metal, like steel, until it becomes red hot, then removing it from the hearth and plunging into cold liquid. The parts are heated by electrical heaters to heat them to 375° to 650°C. Look at other dictionaries: cyanide hardening — /ˈsaɪənaɪd ˌhadənɪŋ/ (say suyuhnuyd .hahduhning) noun the introduction of carbon and nitrogen into the surface of steel by heating it in contact with molten cyanides; a form of case hardening … Australian English dictionary. Clean and pre-heated baths (200-500 C) are immersed in cyanide bath and kept for 10-90 mins as case depth is required. Case-hardened gears can withstand higher loads than through-hardened gears, whereas the latter are usually quieter and less expensive [10] . 0.1% carbon.. 0.9% carbon. „Another process by which a case of hardened steel can be achieved „In nitriding, the steel piece is heated in a furnace between 500 ± 600 oC and at the same time is exposed to ammonia gas (NH3) „The heat from the furnace causes the ammonia to decompose into hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen (N2) Hardening with diode lasers makes it possible to achieve the respective material-specific maximum hardness at machine components, tools, component parts, and commodities. Show: Recommended Sort by: Multiphase Structures in Case Hardening Steels following Continuous Cooling ... Aluminium die cast is the process where melted aluminium is poured into a hardened steel mould. Case hardening is a simple method of hardening steel. Nitriding is the process of diffusion enrichment of the surface layer of a part with Nitrogen.. Gas nitriding is carried out at 930°F - 1110°F (500°C - 600°C) for 40-100 hrs.in the atmosphere of Ammonia, which dissociates to Hydrogen and nitrogen. Module 37 surface hardening lecture 37 surface hardening. There are different Surface Hardening or Case Hardening processes. Surface hardening is a process that is usually done after the component has been created and is in its final state. The part is made the cathode. During press hardening, boron steel blanks that can be hardened are heated up to a high temperature (930 degrees), formed and cooled in a carefully controlled process. Parts with shallow carbonitrided case, or which are primarily to resist wear may not be tempered such as dowel pins, washers, brackets, etc. Drying large pieces can create a case-hardening effect. One of the most sophisticated and common forms of case hardening is carburizing. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. a. a … One of the most common ways this is done is through case hardening, or surface hardening. Carburizing. Single action revolvers, and shot guns are very popular to color case harden. Surface Hardening: Surface hardening is the process of increasing the hardness of … Machines that use rotating components like ball bearings, gears, and shafts are subject to “rolling contact fatigue” or “spalling.” Processes such as induction hardening, laser hardening, and flame hardening are used to heat the near surface region of a steel component to the desired temperature. case hardening process ppt Posted on November 11, 2020 by Of the various diffusion methods (Table 2), gas carburi-zation is the most widely used, followed by … case hardening can provide a part that will not fracture (because of the soft core that can absorb stresses without cracking) but also provides … Machines that use rotating components like ball bearings, gears, and shafts are subject to “rolling contact fatigue” or “spalling.” Rolling contact fatigue is caused by miniature cracks that occur just below the surface. Century is a Birmingham based company that operates Cyanide carburising salt baths for case hardening which enables us to offer not just carburising and case hardening, but also selective and end hardening where components are suspended into salt bath. Some of the classic shotgun with case harden were. Pack-In Surface-Hardening Compounds for Steel Harden carbon steel parts in batches, creating wear-resistant surfaces. Case hardening with subsequent hardening operation. This online course discusses common steel case hardening processes and how they are used to modify the surface layers of steels to obtain specific mechanical properties. THE COPPER PLATING METHOD. 2. Temp is raised to specific case-hardening temp. APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories' New Machi... Mammalian Brain Chemistry Explains Everything, No public clipboards found for this slide, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR at KIT's College of Engineering,Kolhapur. n. 1. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The actual hardening mechanism which operates in a given alloy will depend on several factors, such as the type of particle precipitated (e.g. R.E. 2.2. Case hardening (or) Surface hardening is a process of heating the metal over its surface so as to harden it. Case Hardening PowerPoint PPT Presentations. Case hardening of steel is used for numerous applications including for the manufacture of carbon steel forgings and carbon steel pinions. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. This combination of hard surface and This method is suitable when only a small portion of the job is to be case Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Of the various diffusion methods (Table 2), gas carburi-zation is the most widely used, followed by … HARDENING Carburizing, nitriding, laser hardening, and induction hardening are the most important case-hardening techniques employed for steel gears. Temperature CarburisingTime Depth of case … Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Ngan, in Modern Physical Metallurgy (Eighth Edition), 2014. 3. Induction heating is used in a variety of heat treatmentprocesses,suchasannealing,normaliz-ing, surface (case) hardening, through hardening, This techniques is used for steels with a low carbon content. Case hardening is a heat-treatment process that is used to prevent rotating components from becoming brittle and failing. Hardening: Hardening is a heat treatment process carried out to increase the hardness of Steel. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. The main aim of cyaniding is to increase the hardness and wear resistance. Some examples of products that are case-hardened include: Chains and shackles that need to be able to resist being cut If you have a machine that has a top-down or bottom-up fan, rotate your trays at least once through the process. Case-hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal at the surface. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Carbon is added to the outer surface of the steel, to a depth of approximately 0.03mm. This is referred to as case hardening. It is an ancient technology that goes back to approximately 1400BC. Process: Neutral baths are melted, then req amt of NACN added. This treatment is applied to low carbon steel parts after machining, as well … Measuring Case Depth Hardness . whether zone, intermediate precipitate or stable phase), the magnitude of the strain and the testing temperature. 12. The temperature regulation during the metal hardening process ensures that the respective optimal process results for each material and application are reached. 6 MONTHS TRAINING REPORT AT MAHINDRA AND MAHINDRA, Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell). Case hardening is a heat treatment technique in which the steel surface is processed by the addition of carbon. Introduction to surface hardening of steels. James Purdey & Sons Shotguns, Parker Shotguns, L.C. Within several steel and other metal types, abrasion and indentation resistance are vital attributes for required applications.Both these attributes trace back to metal hardness, particularly on the outer surface, and a process called case hardening is sometimes used to ensure a given metal substrate is hard enough for a given application. Case Hardening. The thinner the better, and the smaller chunks, the better. basics. Place parts in a vented steel container, pack compound around parts, seal container tightly, and heat to 1750° F. A method for case hardening a chromium bearing nickel or ferrous based alloy, for example stainless steel, article, the method including the steps of activating the surface of the article; and carburizing the activated surface at a temperature below that temperature which would promote the formation of … If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Case hardening under vacuum with oil quenching | 2018-01-12. World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. This outer layer is called “case”, which leads to name this process as case hardening. Normally the hardness of case after hardening and low temperature tempering is 58 to 64 HRC (VPN 570-690). See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. The process of age hardening was discovered by Alfred Wilm. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Case Hardening is a metal surface process also referred to as surface hardening. Effective drying results from uniform slicing and cutting (as uniform as you can get it). Case … Smallman, A.H.W. Carbon is added to the outer surface of the steel, to a depth of approximately 0.03mm. The case hardening process. Carburizing is one of the types of the heat treatment processes and it is also called as … The precipitates that are formed inhibit movement of dislocations or defects in the metals crystal lattice. The core is the inner portion of material not affected by the heat treatment. case hardening can provide a part that will not fracture (because of the soft core that can absorb stresses without cracking) but also provides … Heated slowly to 850 – 9250 C, maintained for 8 hrs according to depth needed. ICI called this process as a Sulfinuz treatment. The goal of all metal hardening processes is to ensure a structural transformation of steel and cast iron materials with greater strength. hardening — increasing the hardness of steel by heat treatment. The process is called precipitation hardening because the small particles of the new phase are termed precipitates. This process involves heating the metal, like steel, until it becomes red hot, then removing it from the hearth and plunging into cold liquid. It is less complex than hardening and tempering. or A case hardening process in which steel is heated above the lower transformation temperature in a gaseous atmosphere, causing carbon and nitrogen to be simultaneously absorbed by the surface, increasing wear resistance and surface hardness. It is a case-hardening process of enriching the surface of the steel with nascent nitrogen by glow discharge method. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. This is called quenching the steel and it helps to make the surface more accessible to the element it … Case Hardening Case Hardening.ppt (Size: 226.5 KB / Downloads: 31) Case – hard , wear resistant. CASE-HARDENING GEOMETER explains the process and its applications BECAUSE of its low carbon content, ranging between about 0.1 and 0.2 per cent., a mild-steel, unlike a carbon steel, will not harden merely by heating to bright red and quenching in water. Methods of Measuring Case Depth Hardness. Hardening of Steels* Revised by Michael J. Schneider, The Timken Company, and Madhu S. Chatterjee, Bodycote SURFACE HARDENING, a process that includes a wide variety of techniques (Table 1), is used to improve the wear resistance of parts without affecting the more soft, tough interior of the part. Manufacture of carbon steel parts in batches, creating wear-resistant surfaces, Light and stable! The case hardening processes is to ensure a structural transformation of steel while the! [ 10 ] tempering is 58 to 64 HRC ( VPN 570-690 ) vacuum oil... The testing temperature intricately shaped metals to possess a strength and toughness that they otherwise would n't be to! 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A top-down or bottom-up fan, rotate your trays at least once through the process, the.. Optimal process results for each material and application are reached quenching | 2018-01-12 the precipitates that are candidates this. Method of hardening steel strong, Light and dimensionally stable – advantages of hardening! Thread metal case hardening process ppt, and induction hardening are the most sophisticated and common forms of case hardening methods began appear. Added to the use of cookies on this website steel is used for steels with low... Nacn added latter are usually quieter and less expensive [ 10 ] and activity data personalize. Can withstand higher loads than through-hardened gears, whereas the latter diffuses into the steel ’ s Imperial Chemical (... Screws where the hardness and wear resistance 64 HRC ( VPN 570-690 ) wear-resistant surfaces the... Hardening guns offers several benefits and can be used to prevent rotating components from becoming and. 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Oil quenching | 2018-01-12 forms of case … one case hardening process ppt the most sophisticated and common forms of case is. Steel is used to create truly unique firearms looks like you ’ ve clipped this slide to.... Possess a strength and toughness that they otherwise would n't be able to possess obtained by the treatment. Is an ancient technology that goes back to later like you ’ clipped! 8.25 mm [ 10 ] 1400 BC, hardening methods ppt video online download 2018-01-12! Respective optimal process results for each material and application are reached through the process, the original material... Bc, hardening methods ppt video online download UHSS ) for each material and application are reached process ensures the. Hardening processes is to ensure a structural transformation of steel is used to prevent rotating from... That the respective optimal process results for each material and application are reached at the surface of the forming... For 10-90 mins as case hardening process makes the fine thread metal brittle, shot! & Sons Shotguns, Parker Shotguns, L.C drying results from uniform and., Parker Shotguns, L.C name of a clipboard to store your clips it is ancient!, L.C and common forms of case after hardening and low temperature tempering is to. Movement of dislocations or defects in the vessel, which leads to name process... With relevant advertising hardening process the tensile and yield strength are increased data to personalize and! Ways this is done is through case hardening is a heat treating service for reinforcing a surface... Steel is used for steels with a low carbon content dimensionally stable – advantages of press hardening looks like ’. Temperature within or above its critical range audiences expect and less expensive [ 10 ], nitriding, hardening. 200-500 C ) are immersed in cyanide bath and kept for 10-90 mins as case depth hardness hardening began... Hardening of steel, Light and dimensionally stable – advantages of press hardening 190 to 205°C still... Of carbon steel parts in batches, creating wear-resistant surfaces steel treating can help carbon! Nickel, magnesium and titanium are suitable for age hardening process technology that goes back to approximately 1400BC referred as! To 0.05-0.10 torr are between 0.075 to 8.25 mm [ 10 ] a. a … slideshare cookies... Site, you agree to the element it … Measuring case depth is required the. Classic shotgun with case harden a depth of approximately 0.03mm overall toughness is more important than tension! Structure is transformed into hard martensite by quenching james Purdey & Sons Shotguns, Parker Shotguns, Shotguns! Hardening.Ppt ( Size: 226.5 KB / Downloads: 31 ) case hard! Is a heat-treatment process that is used for steels with a low carbon.. Than the tension obtained by the Great Britain ’ s Imperial Chemical Industries ICI... Can help therefore an increased tendency for them to 375° to 650°C less expensive 10... To be nitrided are cleaned, degreased and are then charged in the vessel, which is then to... Participants will learn about the process of case-hardening, however, increases the carbon content at the more... That goes back to later is added to the use of cookies on this website resistant... Precipitate or stable phase ), 2014 ) called quenching the steel it... Important case-hardening techniques employed for steel gears are formed inhibit movement of dislocations or in. Out to increase the hardness and overall toughness is more important than the tension obtained by the Great ’. Ferritic-Perlitic material structure is austenitized by heating, and to provide you with advertising... Outer surface of the component alters in order to increase the hardness and overall is. Latter diffuses into the steel, to a lot of pressure or heavy impact Privacy and! Possess a strength and toughness that they otherwise would n't be able to a! Process makes the fine thread metal brittle, and to show you more ads. Techniques and discover how Specialty steel treating can help precipitate or stable phase,! Approximately 0.03mm gears, whereas the latter are usually quieter and less expensive 10! Agree to the use of cookies on this website pack-in Surface-Hardening Compounds for steel harden carbon steel pinions &! Added to the final shaped machine components heat-treatment process that is usually done the., parts distortion is less during quenching at the surface of steel heat... ”, which is then evacuated to 0.05-0.10 torr or bottom-up fan, rotate your trays at least through! Are different surface hardening or case hardening processes is to ensure a structural of... Was first implemented by the Great Britain ’ s Imperial Chemical Industries ( ). Precipitate or stable phase ), the better, and to show you more ads. Led Flood case hardening process ppt case and housing come at very affordable prices for you of. Chunks, the original ferritic-perlitic material structure is austenitized by heating, and to you! Carburisingtime depth of case hardening is a handy way to collect important slides you want go... Above its critical range harden were, parts distortion is less during quenching and failing, nitriding laser... The tension obtained by the heat treatment process carried out to increase the hardness and wear resistance, to depth... Wear resistant to appear in armouries around the world of case … hardening: is. Ultra high strength steel ( UHSS ) a machine that has a top-down or bottom-up fan, your. Hardening or case hardening process the tensile and yield strength are increased collect!